Vol. 149, No. 3 — January 17, 2015

GOVERNMENT NOTICES

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Publication after screening assessment of living organisms — Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) ATCC (see footnote 1) 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 (see footnote 2) — specified on the Domestic Substances List (subsection 77(1) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999)

Whereas P. polymyxa strains ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 are living organisms on the Domestic Substances List identified under subsection 105(1) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999;

Whereas a summary of the draft Screening Assessment conducted on these living organisms, pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Act, is annexed hereby;

Whereas it is proposed to conclude that these living organisms do not meet any of the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act,

Notice therefore is hereby given that the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health (the ministers) propose to take no further action on these living organisms at this time under section 77 of the Act.

Public comment period

As specified under subsection 77(5) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, any person may, within 60 days after publication of this notice, file with the Minister of the Environment written comments on the measure the ministers propose to take and on the scientific considerations on the basis of which the measure is proposed. More information regarding the scientific considerations may be obtained from the Government of Canada’s Chemical Substances Web site (www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca). All comments must cite the Canada Gazette, Part I, and the date of publication of this notice and be sent to the Executive Director, Program Development and Engagement Division, Environment Canada, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3, 819-938-3231 (fax), substances@ec.gc.ca (email).

In accordance with section 313 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, any person who provides information in response to this notice may submit with the information a request that it be treated as confidential.

DAVID MORIN
Director General
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of the Environment

AMANDA JANE PREECE
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of Health

ANNEX

Summary of the Draft Screening Assessment Report of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strains ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4

Pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health have conducted a screening assessment on Paenibacillus polymyxa strains ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4.

P. polymyxa is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is present in many environments. It has been isolated from soils, the rhizosphere and roots of plants and from marine sediments. P. polymyxa has a broad host range as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. P. polymyxa is not known as an animal or plant pathogen. If these strains were used as components in a product to be released into the environment, their introduction would not be expected to have a long-term impact on the ecosystem.

P. polymyxa is not known as a human pathogen. Despite its ubiquity, there have been only two reported cases of P. polymyxa infection in humans, both involving individuals suffering from pre-existing health conditions. Of those cases, only one indicated P. polymyxa as the sole microorganism involved.

This assessment considers the aforementioned characteristics of P. polymyxa ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 with respect to environmental and human health effects associated with product use and industrial processes subject to CEPA 1999, including releases to the environment through waste streams and incidental human exposure through environmental media. To update information about current uses, the Government launched a mandatory information-gathering survey under section 71 of CEPA 1999 (section 71 notice), as published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on October 3, 2009. Information submitted in response to the notice indicates that P. polymyxa ATCC 55407 was not imported into or manufactured in Canada in 2008, but that P. polymyxa ATCC 842 and 13540-4 are used in consumer and commercial products.

Considering all available lines of evidence presented in this draft Screening Assessment, there is a low risk of harm to organisms and the broader integrity of the environment from P. polymyxa ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4. It is proposed to conclude that P. polymyxa ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 do not meet the criteria under paragraph 64(a) or (b) of CEPA 1999, as they are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity or that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends.

Also, based on the information presented in the draft Screening Assessment, it is proposed to conclude that P. polymyxa ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 do not meet the criteria under paragraph 64(c) of CEPA 1999, as they are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.

Proposed conclusion

It is proposed to conclude that P. polymyxa ATCC 842, ATCC 55407 and 13540-4 do not meet any of the criteria set out in section 64 of CEPA 1999.

The draft Screening Assessment for these living organisms is available on the Government of Canada’s Chemical Substances Web site (www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca).

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DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Publication of final decision after screening assessment of a living organism — Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) strain ATCC (see footnote 3) 17587 — specified on the Domestic Substances List (subsection 77(6) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999)

Whereas P. stutzeri strain ATCC 17587 is a living organism on the Domestic Substances List identified under subsection 105(1) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999;

Whereas a summary of the Screening Assessment conducted on this living organism, pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Act is annexed hereby;

Whereas it is concluded that this living organism does not meet any of the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act,

Notice therefore is hereby given that the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health propose to take no further action on this living organism at this time under section 77 of the Act.

LEONA AGLUKKAQ
Minister of the Environment

RONA AMBROSE
Minister of Health

ANNEX

Summary of the Screening Assessment of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain ATCC 17587

Pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health have conducted a screening assessment of P. stutzeri ATCC 17587.

P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 is a bacterium that has characteristics in common with other strains of the species P. stutzeri that occur in nature. P. stutzeri has the ability to adapt to and thrive in soil, sediments and water. Multiple potential uses of P. stutzeri in household, industrial, commercial and agricultural sectors exist. These include treatment of ponds and aquariums (to breakdown wastes and control odours), waste management, wastewater treatment, septic tank cleaning and deodorizing, drain cleaning and degreasing, bioremediation, recovery of oil and precious metals, as well as in enzyme production for the manufacture of foods, detergents, textiles and bioethanol.

Despite the widespread presence of P. stutzeri in soil and water and in close association with plant roots, only one case of infection has been reported in terrestrial vertebrates. This case was in chickens, and the infection was successfully treated with antibiotics. Certain strains of P. stutzeri have antialgal, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Experimental challenge with P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 on a soil springtail, a terrestrial invertebrate, revealed a significant decrease in adult survival and juvenile production at concentrations which can be reached during bioremediation uses. However, there is no evidence that occasional applications of P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 to soil will adversely affect terrestrial invertebrates at the population level.

There have been no human infections attributed to the Domestic Substances List strain P. stutzeri ATCC 17587. Some strains of P. stutzeri can act as an opportunistic pathogen in susceptible humans. Compared with other closely related opportunistic Pseudomonas pathogens, the incidence of nosocomial or secondary infection due to P. stutzeri in individuals with compromised immunity and underlying medical conditions is low.

This assessment considers the aforementioned characteristics of P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 with respect to environmental and human health effects associated with product use and industrial processes subject to CEPA 1999, including releases to the environment through waste streams and incidental human exposure through environmental media. To update information about current uses, the Government launched a mandatory information-gathering survey under section 71 of CEPA 1999 (section 71 notice), as published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on October 3, 2009. Information submitted in response to the notice indicates that P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 was not imported into or manufactured in Canada in 2008.

Considering all available lines of evidence presented in the Screening Assessment, there is a low risk of harm to organisms and the broader integrity of the environment from P. stutzeri ATCC 17587. It is concluded that P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 does not meet the criteria under paragraph 64(a) or (b) of CEPA 1999 as it is not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity or that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends.

Also, based on the information presented in the Screening Assessment, it is concluded that P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 does not meet the criteria under paragraph 64(c) of CEPA 1999, as it is not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.

Conclusion

It is concluded that P. stutzeri ATCC 17587 does not meet any of the criteria set out under section 64 of CEPA 1999.

The Screening Assessment for this living organism is available on the Government of Canada’s Chemical Substances Web site (www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca).

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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Proposed residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of a proposed residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide.

The following exposure limits are proposed:

Exposure period Concentration
µg/m3 ppb
Short-term (1 hour) 170 90
Long-term 20 11

Health Canada recommends reducing exposure to nitrogen dioxide to levels below the proposed exposure limits in order to minimize the risk of health effects, by controlling sources of nitrogen dioxide in homes.

Any person may, within 60 days after publication of this notice, file with the Minister of Health written comments on the proposed guideline. All written comments are to be made publicly available to all interested parties. All comments, requests for copies of the full science assessment, and information requests must cite the Canada Gazette, Part I, and the date of publication of this notice and be sent to the Water and Air Quality Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9, 613-957-1876 (telephone), 613-948-8482 (fax), air@hc-sc.gc.ca (email).

December 23, 2014

AMANDA JANE PREECE
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of Health

PROPOSED RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY
GUIDELINE: NITROGEN DIOXIDE

Background

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) belongs to the nitrogen oxides (NOx) family of compounds. It is a reddish-brown gas with low water solubility, found in both indoor and outdoor air. This contaminant was identified in Health Canada’s 1987 Exposure Guidelines for Residential Indoor Air Quality as the only oxide of nitrogen that could have adverse health effects at concentrations potentially encountered in indoor air. The present document reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and exposure research on NO2 that has been published since 1987, and proposes new short- and long-term indoor air exposure limits.

Sources and exposure

Nitrogen dioxide in the indoor environment originates from both infiltration of ambient NO2 and NO2 produced by combustion sources within the home. Major anthropogenic sources of ambient NO2 include emissions from vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, fossil fuel power stations, industrial processes, and building heating systems. Potential indoor sources of NO2 include gas, wood or kerosene appliances such as furnaces, space heaters, stoves, and water-heaters. Emissions from these appliances are minimal when the appliance is well vented (i.e. exhaust gases are effectively evacuated outdoors). However, these emissions may become significant if the appliance is unvented or poorly vented. In the case of gas stoves, the degree of venting is variable as this depends on the presence and efficacy of the range hood exhaust fan as well as the extent to which residents use the fan while cooking.

Levels of indoor NO2 vary considerably between homes, due to differences in exterior and interior sources. In studies of homes in Canadian cities (Halifax, Hamilton, Regina, Windsor, Edmonton, and Toronto), median indoor levels of NO2, measured in either summer or winter, generally varied between 4 and 10 µg/m3 (Health Canada, 2013; Health Canada, 2012; Health Canada, 2010; Héroux et al., 2010). When only homes with gas stoves were considered, median values ranged from 9 to 22 µg/m3, with the highest levels measured in winter. The full range of concentrations measured in these studies varied from less than 1 µg/m3 to approximately 90 µg/m3.

Health effects

Health effects of exposure to NO2 have been examined in toxicological, epidemiological, and controlled human exposure studies. In this assessment, the short-term exposure limit is derived from the results of controlled human exposure studies, whereas the long-term exposure limit is based on epidemiological data from studies conducted in homes or schools. Supporting evidence is provided by the results of epidemiological studies of the health effects of ambient NO2, and by toxicological data obtained from studies conducted on laboratory animals.

Controlled human exposure studies

In general, controlled human exposure studies in healthy adults suggest that the respiratory and cardiovascular systems are not adversely affected by inhalation of up to 1 880 µg/m3 NO2 for one to six hours, with or without exercise (Gong et al., 2005; Frampton et al., 2002; Vagaggini et al., 1996; Jorres et al., 1995; Kim et al., 1991; Rubinstein et al., 1991; Frampton et al., 1989a; Frampton et al., 1989b; Adams, Brookes and Schelegle, 1987; Folinsbee et al., 1978; Morrow et al., 1992; Frampton et al., 1991; Hazucha, Ginsberg and McDonnell, 1983; Bylin et al., 1985). However, evidence of slight hematological, inflammatory, and immunological effects was observed in some healthy adults with exposure to 1 100 µg/m3 NO2 (Frampton et al., 1989a; Frampton et al., 1989b; Frampton et al., 2002).

Multiple studies among asthmatics and adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reported adverse respiratory effects of NO2 at concentrations as low as 500 µg/m3 (Vagaggini et al., 1996; Morrow et al., 1992; Roger et al., 1990; Bauer et al., 1986; Avol et al., 1989; Strand et al., 1996; Bylin et al., 1988). Asthmatic children and adults exhibited decreased lung function and/or airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) following bronchial challenge (i.e. administration of bronchoconstricting agents) [Bauer et al., 1986; Avol et al., 1989]. Furthermore, asthmatics with allergies displayed decreased lung function (Strand et al., 1997; Jenkins et al., 1999; Tunnicliffe, Burge and Ayres, 1994) or increased pulmonary inflammation when NO2 exposure was followed by exposure to an allergen (Barck et al., 2002; Barck et al., 2005; Wang et al., 1995a; Wang et al., 1995b). Adults with COPD displayed decreased lung function in response to NO2, but other health effects were not observed (Vagaggini et al., 1996; Gong et al., 2005).

Data on the respiratory health effects of NO2 below concentrations of 500 ug/m3 is inconsistent. A small number of studies demonstrated that exposure to concentrations of NO2 below 500 µg/m3 could result in decreased lung function in asthmatic adults following bronchial challenge (Orehek, Massari and Gaynard, 1976; Kleinman et al., 1983; Hazucha, Ginsberg and McDonnell, 1983), while other studies failed to demonstrate this effect (Bylin et al., 1985; Bylin et al., 1988; Roger et al., 1990; Jorres and Magnussen, 1991). The marked response of some individuals to NO2 with bronchial challenge suggests a large variability in the population, even among asthmatics. However, this responsiveness was not correlated with asthma severity or sensitivity to a given bronchoconstricting agent. Overall, the current evidence does not suggest age- or gender-sensitivity to NO2, although few studies have specifically evaluated this question in older adults or asthmatic children.

Indoor epidemiological studies

In terms of chronic exposure, numerous epidemiological studies have found positive associations between frequency of respiratory symptoms (e.g. wheezing, chest tightness) and long-term exposure to NO2 in the home. However, these same studies generally report few or no effects of NO2 on lung function parameters. Positive associations between indoor NO2 and respiratory symptoms were most consistently observed in studies of asthmatic children exposed to indoor NO2 concentrations that were approximately two to three times higher than those typically measured in Canadian homes.

Two randomized intervention studies support a relationship between decreased exposure to NO2 and its co-pollutants and improvement in respiratory symptoms, particularly in asthmatic children (Pilotto et al., 2004; Marks et al., 2010). In these studies, the intervention involved replacement of an unvented gas heater with a vented gas or electric heater. Studies investigating the relationship between personal NO2 exposures and respiratory health outcomes also support an association between chronic NO2 exposure and adverse effects.

A large number of studies have investigated respiratory health in relation to the presence or use of a gas stove, without direct measurement of NO2 levels. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have produced mixed results, with some indication of a relationship between increased respiratory symptoms and slight decreases in lung function in children when gas stoves are present in the home (reviewed in WHO, 2010). The potential for exposure misclassification is greater in these types of studies as NO2 is not directly measured; this may explain, in part, the inconsistencies in the database.

Residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide

The determination of a residential indoor air quality guideline (RIAQG) is carried out in two stages. First, a reference concentration (RfC) is derived by applying uncertainty factors to the concentrations at which the most sensitive adverse health endpoint was observed. The RfC represents the indoor air concentration below which individuals (including sensitive subgroups) may be exposed and not experience adverse health effects. For the short-term exposure RfC, the exposure period is specified — in the present case, one hour. For the long-term exposure RfC, the exposure is considered to occur over months or years, up to a lifetime.

In the second stage, the short- and long-term exposure RfCs are compared with measured exposures in residential indoor air, and evaluated with respect to their technical feasibility. If the RfC is considered attainable where reasonable control measures are followed, the RIAQG is set equal to the RfC. If the RfC is considered unattainable with currently available risk management technology and practices, the RIAQG may be set at a higher concentration. This allows a RIAQG to be used as an achievable target for improving indoor air quality when evaluating risk management measures.

Setting the RIAQG at a higher concentration than the RfC results in a smaller margin of exposure between the RIAQG and the concentration at which effects have been observed in health studies. Nonetheless, the RIAQG is still considered protective of health, given the precautionary nature of the risk assessment process in which uncertainty factors are applied to the most sensitive adverse health endpoint observed in a sensitive subpopulation.

Short-term residential indoor air quality guideline

For the derivation of the short-term exposure (one hour) RfC, a point of departure of 500 µg/m3 NO2 was selected, based on effects in asthmatics in most short-term controlled exposure studies. The health effects observed at this level of exposure were decreased lung function and increased inflammation. This point of departure is also consistent with decreased lung function observed in subjects with COPD exposed to 560 µg/m3 NO2. However, it should be emphasized that there were individuals who were more responsive in some studies, suggestive of a large variability in the population.

In determining the need for an uncertainty factor (UF) for intraspecies variability, consideration was given to the increased AHR of individual asthmatics at doses as low as 190 µg/m3 NO2. Similarly, consideration was given to the uncertainty in the effects that might be observed in adults with COPD and in asthmatic children if they had been tested at concentrations of less than 500 µg/m3. An intraspecies UF of 3 is considered protective of potentially sensitive individuals (i.e. responders, adults with COPD, asthmatic children). A composite UF of 10 (3 for use of an adverse effects level as the point of departure, and 3 for intraspecies variability) was therefore applied to the short-term lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 500 µg/m3 to obtain an RfC of 50 µg/m3.

Evaluating the feasibility of the short-term exposure RfC for the Canadian population is limited by the lack of data on short-term peak concentrations. However, a California study of modelled indoor NO2 concentrations indicates that less than 25% of homes with gas stoves and moderately efficient hood ventilation would meet a limit of 50 µg/m3. By comparison, 75% of homes with gas stoves and moderately effective stovetop ventilation would be able to meet a limit of 170 µg/m3. For risk management purposes, a short-term RIAQG of 170 µg/m3 is therefore recommended for short-term exposures. This proposed value would supersede the previous 1987 Health Canada short-term indoor air exposure limit of 480 µg/m3. Nearly all homes will be able to meet the proposed guidelines, although some with a gas stove may exceed the short-term guideline for brief periods of time after cooking.

The recommended short-term exposure (one hour) RIAQG of 170 µg/m3 is considered protective of health. It is approximately threefold lower than the concentration at which the most sensitive adverse effects were observed in sensitive subpopulations (asthmatic adults and children, adults with COPD) in multiple studies. In addition, it provides a marginal buffer to the AHR observed in a few sensitized asthmatics at 190 µg/m3 in two studies.

It is recommended that the short-term exposure limit be compared to a one-hour air sample. This sample should be taken under conditions where peak NO2 concentrations might occur, such as in the kitchen during cooking with a gas stove.

Long-term residential indoor air quality guideline

For the derivation of the long-term RfC, consideration was given to the strength of the epidemiological evidence for an association between chronic indoor NO2 exposure and adverse respiratory effects, the level of exposure at which studies begin to show significant increases in effects (i.e. point of departure), and the UFs that should be applied to the point of departure. A point of departure of 30 µg/m3 was selected, based on respiratory symptoms observed in epidemiological studies of asthmatic children and supporting evidence from intervention studies. A default UF of 3 was retained to account for the fact that the point of departure is based on observed adverse effects. As the studies on which the point of departure is based are conducted in the sensitive subpopulation of asthmatic children, no further UF for intraspecies variability was employed. A UF of 3 was therefore applied to the long-term point of departure of 30 µg/m3 to obtain a long-term exposure RfC of 10 µg/m3.

The available evidence indicates that a long-term exposure at an RfC of 10 µg/m3 does not result in adverse health effects in the general population, including the more vulnerable subgroup of asthmatic children. However, data on gas stove homes in Canada suggest that approximately 90% of these homes would exceed an average concentration of 10 µg/m3 NO2. Moreover, approximately 10% of electric stove homes would exceed this concentration, even in the absence of a significant indoor source of NO2. For this reason, the long-term exposure RfC of 10 µg/m3 was not retained as the RIAQG for long-term exposures.

For risk management purposes, a value of 20 µg/m3 is proposed as the RIAQG for long-term exposures. This proposed value would supersede the previous 1987 Health Canada long-term indoor air exposure limit of 100 µg/m3. Data from Canadian indoor air studies indicate that the concentration of NO2 in most electric stove homes will rarely exceed this level and that this concentration is also attainable in gas stove homes when adequate stovetop ventilation is used. Moreover, the epidemiological evidence is not suggestive of appreciable health effects associated with long-term exposure at this concentration. The recommended RIAQG for long-term exposures of 20 µg/m3 is thus considered protective of health.

When comparing a measured NO2 concentration with the long-term exposure limit, the sampling time should be at least 24 hours. However, given the fluctuation in NO2 levels throughout the day, month, or season, longer sampling periods will provide a more representative estimate for evaluating NO2 exposure occurring over months or years.

Residential maximum exposure limit for nitrogen dioxide
Exposure period Concentration Critical effects
µg/m3 ppb
Short-term 170 90 Decreased lung function and increased airway responsiveness in asthmatics
Long-term 20 11 Higher frequency of days with respiratory symptoms and/or medication use in asthmatic children

Strategies for reducing exposure to NO2 indoors include controlling indoor emissions from combustion appliances and reducing infiltration of NO2 from adjacent sources. Control measures include the following:

Use of these strategies will reduce exposure to NO2 and other contaminants in combustion gases, including carbon monoxide, fine and ultrafine particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds.

References

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Avol, E. L., Linn, W. S., Peng, R. C., Whynot, J. D., Shamoo, D. A., Little, D. E., Smith, M. N. and Hackney, J. D. (1989) Experimental exposures of young asthmatic volunteers to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide and to ambient air pollution, Toxicology and industrial health, 5(6): 1025–1034.

Barck, C., Lundahl, J., Halldén, G. and Bylin, G. (2005) Brief exposures to NO2 augment the allergic inflammation in asthmatics, Environmental Research, 97(1): 58–66.

Barck, C., Sandstrom, T., Lundahl, J., Halldén, G., Svartengren, M., Strand, V., Rak, S. and Bylin, G. (2002) Ambient level of NO2 augments the inflammatory response to inhaled allergen in asthmatics, Respiratory Medicine, 96(11): 907–917.

Bauer, M. A., Utell, M. J., Morrow, P. E., Speers, D. M. and Gibb, F. R. (1986) Inhalation of 0.30 ppm nitrogen dioxide potentiates exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthmatics, American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 134: 1203–1208.

Belanger, K., Gent, J. F., Triche, E. W., Bracken, M. B. and Leaderer, B. P. (2006) Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 173(3): 297–303.

Belanger, K., Holford, T. R., Gent, J. F., Hill, M. E., Kezik, J. M. and Leaderer, B. P. (2013) Household levels of nitrogen dioxide and pediatric asthma severity, Epidemiology, 24(2): 320–330.

Bylin, G., Hedenstierna, G., Lindvall, T. and Sundin, B. (1988) Ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations increase bronchial responsiveness in subjects with mild asthma, European Respiratory Journal, 1(7): 606–612.

Bylin, G., Lindvall, T., Rehn, T. and Sundin, B. (1985) Effects of short-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations on human bronchial reactivity and lung function, Eur J Respir Dis, 66(3): 205–217.

Folinsbee, L. J., Horvath, S. M., Bedi, J. F. and Delehunt, J. C. (1978) Effect of 0.62 ppm NO2 on cardiopulmonary function in young male nonsmokers, Environmental Research, 15(2): 199–205.

Frampton, M. W., Boscia, J., Roberts Jr., N. J., Azadniv, M., Torres, A., Cox, C., Morrow, P. E., Nichols, J., Chalupa, D., Frasier, L. M., Gibb, F. R., Speers, D. M., Tsai, Y. and Utell, M. J. (2002) Nitrogen dioxide exposure: Effects on airway and blood cells, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 282(1 26-1): L155–L165.

Frampton, M. W., Finkelstein, J. N., Roberts Jr., N. J., Smeglin, A. M., Morrow, P. E. and Utell, M. J. (1989a) Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on bronchoalveolar lavage proteins in humans, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 1(6): 499–505.

Frampton, M. W., Morrow, P. E., Cox, C., Gibb, F. R., Speers, D. M. and Utell, M. J. (1991) Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in normal humans, American Review of Respiratory Disease, 143(3 I): 522–527.

Frampton, M. W., Smeglin, A. M., Roberts Jr., N. J., Finkelstein, J. N., Morros, P. E. and Utell, M. J. (1989b) Nitrogen dioxide exposure in vivo and human alveolar macrophage inactivation of influenza virus in vitro, Environmental Research, 48(2): 179–192.

Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Clark, K. W., Anderson, K. R., Geller, M. D. and Sioutas, C. (2005) Respiratory responses to exposures with fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide in the elderly with and without COPD, Inhalation toxicology, 17(3): 123–132.

Hansel, N. N., Breysse, P. N., McCormack, M. C., Matsui, E. C., Curtin-Brosnan, J., Williams, D. L., Moore, J. L., Cuhran, J. L. and Diette, G. B. (2008) A longitudinal study of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratory symptoms in inner-city children with asthma, Environmental health perspectives, 116(10): 1428–1432.

Hazucha, M. J., Ginsberg, J. F. and McDonnell, W. F. (1983) Effects of 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide on airways of normal and asthmatic subjects, Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology, 54(3): 730–739, as cited in Graham et al. (1997).

Health Canada (2013) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2013-17 — Edmonton NO2 (unpublished).

Health Canada (2012) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2012-15 — Halifax NO2 Data (unpublished).

Health Canada (2010) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2010-07 — NO2 Data (unpublished).

Héroux, M. E., Clark, N., van Ryswyk, K., Mallick, R., Gilbert, N. L., Harrison, I., Rispler, K., Wang, D., Anastassopoulos, A., Guay, M., Macneill, M. and Wheeler, A. J. (2010) Predictors of indoor air concentrations in smoking and non-smoking residences, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(8): 3080–3099.

Jorres, R. and Magnussen, H. (1991) Effect of 0.25 ppm nitrogen dioxide on the airway response to methacholine in asymptomatic asthmatic patients, Lung, 169(2): 77–85.

Kattan, M., Gergen, P. J., Eggleston, P., Visness, C. M. and Mitchell, H. E. (2007) Health effects of indoor nitrogen dioxide and passive smoking on urban asthmatic children, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120(3): 618–624.

Kim, S. U., Koenig, J. Q., Pierson, W. E. and Hanley, Q. S. (1991) Acute pulmonary effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure during exercise in competitive athletes, Chest, 99(4): 815–819.

Kleinman, M. T., Bailey, R. M., Linn, W. S., Anderson, K. R., Whynot, J. D., Shamoo, D. A. and Hackney, J. D. (1983) Effects of 0.2 ppm nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function and response to bronchoprovocation in asthmatics, J Toxicol Environ Health, 12(4-6): 815–826.

Logue, J. M., Klepeis, N. E., Lobscheid, A. G. and Singer, B. C. (2013) Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California.  Environmental health perspectives, 122(1): 43–50.

Marks, G. B., Ezz, W., Aust, N., Toelle, B. G., Xuan, W., Belousova, E., Cosgrove, C., Jalaludin, B. and Smith, W. T. (2010) Respiratory health effects of exposure to low-NOx unflued gas heaters in the classroom: a double-blind, cluster-randomized, crossover study, Environ Health Perspect, 118(10): 1476–82.

Morrow, P. E., Utell, M. J., Bauer, M. A., Smeglin, A. M., Frampton, M. W., Cox, C., Speers, D. M. and Gibb, F. R. (1992) Pulmonary performance of elderly normal subjects and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide, Am Rev Respir Dis, 145(2): 291–300.

Nitschke, M., Pilotto, L. S., Attewell, R. G., Smith, B. J., Pisaniello, D., Martin, J., Ruffin, R. E. and Hiller, J. E. (2006) A cohort study of indoor nitrogen dioxide and house dust mite exposure in asthmatic children, J Occup Environ Med, 48(5): 462–469.

Orehek, J., Massari, J. P. and Gayrard, P. (1976) Effect of short term, low level nitrogen dioxide exposure on bronchial sensitivity of asthmatic patients, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 57(2): 301–307.

Pilotto, L. S., Nitschke, M., Smith, B. J., Pisaniello, D., Ruffin, R. E., McElroy, H. J., Martin, J. and Hiller, J. E. (2004) Randomized controlled trial of unflued gas heater replacement on respiratory health of asthmatic schoolchildren, Int J Epidemiol, 33(1): 208–214.

Roger, L. J., Horstman, D. H., McDonnell, W., Kehrl, H., Ives, P. J., Seal, E., Chapman, R. and Massaro, E. (1990) Pulmonary function, airway responsiveness and respiratory symptoms in asthmatics following exercise in NO2, Toxicology and industrial health, 6(1): 155–171.

Rubinstein, I., Reiss, T. F., Bigby, B. G., Stites, D. P. and Boushey, H. A. J. (1991) Effects of 0.60 PPM nitrogen dioxide on circulating and bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte phenotypes in healthy subjects, Environ Res, 55(1): 18–30.

Strand, V., Salomonsson, P., Lundahl, J. and Bylin, G. (1996) Immediate and delayed effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure at an ambient level on bronchial responsiveness to histamine in subjects with asthma, Eur Respir J, 9(4): 733–740.

Vagaggini, B., Paggiaro, P. L., Giannini, D., Franco, A. D., Cianchetti, S., Carnevali, S., Taccola, M., Bacci, E., Bancalari, L., Dente, F. L. and Giuntini, C. (1996) Effect of short-term NO2 exposure on induced sputum in normal, asthmatic and COPD subjects, European Respiratory Journal, 9(9): 1852–1857.

Wang, J. H., Devalia, J. L., Duddle, J. M., Hamilton, S. A., and Davies, R. J. (1995a) Effect of six-hour exposure to nitrogen dioxide on early-phase nasal response to allergen challenge in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis, J. Allergy Clin Immunol, 96(5 I): 669–676.

Wang, J. H., Duddle, J., Devalia, J. L. and Davies, R. J. (1995b) Nitrogen dioxide increases eosinophil activation in the early-phase response to nasal allergen provocation, Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 107(1-3): 103–105.

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL

Appointments

Name and position

Order in Council

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited  

Chairperson of the board of directors

 

Currie, Peter W.

2014-1500

Directors

 

Hall, James

2014-1501

Josey, Gregory

2014-1502

Lajeunesse, Claude

2014-1503
Côté, The Hon. Jean E. 2015-3

Government of Alberta

 

Administrator

 

January 11 to February 13, 2015

 
Da Pont, George 2015-10

Deputy Minister of Public Works and Government Services

 
Fadden, Richard 2015-8

National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister

 
Forbes, Chris 2015-14

Associate Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food

 
Gillis, Kelly 2015-13

Associate Deputy Minister of Industry

 
Government of Saskatchewan 2015-2

Administrators

 

Ryan-Froslie, The Hon. Jacelyn A.

 

January 5 to January 18, 2015

 

Whitmore, The Hon. Peter A.

 

February 23 to March 15, 2015

 
Hogan, Christine 2015-12

Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

 

and

 

Deputy Minister for International Trade

 
Johnston, The Hon. Robert T. C. 2015-1

Government of British Columbia

 

Administrator

 

January 5 to January 9, 2015

 
Kennedy, Simon 2015-11

Deputy Minister of Health

 
McGovern, David 2015-9

Deputy National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister

 
Mithani, Siddika 2015-15

Associate Deputy Minister of the Environment

 
Sullivan, Martin 2014-1497

Bank of Canada

 

Director of the Board of Directors

 
Tremblay, Robin Y. 2014-1490

Superior Court of Justice in and for the Province of Ontario

 

Judge

 

Court of Appeal for Ontario

 

Judge ex officio

 

January 8, 2015

DIANE BÉLANGER
Official Documents Registrar

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL

Appointments

Name and position

Instrument of Advice dated January 5, 2015

Fantino, The Hon. Julian, P.C.

Associate Minister of National Defence

O’Toole, Erin, P.C.

Minister of Veterans Affairs

January 8, 2015

DIANE BÉLANGER
Official Documents Registrar

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OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

INSURANCE COMPANIES ACT

Arch Reinsurance Company — Order to insure in Canada risks

Notice is hereby given of the issuance, pursuant to subsection 574(1) of the Insurance Companies Act, of an order to insure in Canada risks, effective December 19, 2014, authorizing Arch Reinsurance Company, under the name, in English, Arch Reinsurance Company, and, in French, Compagnie de réassurance Arch, to insure in Canada risks, limited to the reinsurance of risks, falling within the classes of accident and sickness insurance, aircraft insurance, automobile insurance, boiler and machinery insurance, credit insurance, credit protection insurance, fidelity insurance, hail insurance, legal expenses insurance, liability insurance, marine insurance, property insurance and surety insurance.

January 7, 2015

JEREMY RUDIN
Superintendent of Financial Institutions

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