Vol. 149, No. 32 — August 8, 2015

GOVERNMENT NOTICES

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of the issuance of a residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide. The following exposure limits are recommended:

Exposure period Concentration
µg/m3 ppb
Short-term (1 hour) 170 90
Long-term (24 hours) 20 11

These exposure limits are protective against potential health effects of exposures to nitrogen dioxide via inhalation. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in most homes in Canada are below these limits.

June 19, 2015

AMANDA JANE PREECE
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of Health

ANNEX

RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY GUIDELINE: NITROGEN DIOXIDE

Background

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) belongs to the nitrogen oxides (NOx) family of compounds. It is a reddish-brown gas with low water solubility, found in both indoor and outdoor air. This contaminant was identified in Health Canada’s 1987 Exposure Guidelines for Residential Indoor Air Quality as the only oxide of nitrogen that could have adverse health effects at concentrations potentially encountered in indoor air. The present document reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and exposure research on NO2 that has been published since 1987 and sets new short- and long-term indoor air exposure limits.

Sources and exposure

Nitrogen dioxide in the indoor environment originates from both infiltration of ambient NO2 and NO2 produced by combustion sources within the home. Major anthropogenic sources of ambient NO2 include emissions from vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, fossil fuel power stations, industrial processes, and building heating systems. Potential indoor sources of NO2 include gas, wood or kerosene appliances such as gas stoves, furnaces, space heaters, and gas water-heaters. Emissions from these appliances are minimal when the appliance is well vented (i.e. exhaust gases are effectively evacuated outdoors). However, these emissions may become significant if the appliance is unvented or poorly vented. In the case of gas stoves, the degree of venting is variable as this depends on the presence and efficacy of the range hood exhaust fan as well as the extent to which residents use the fan while cooking.

Levels of indoor NO2 vary considerably between homes, due to differences in exterior and interior sources. In studies of homes in Canadian cities (Halifax, Hamilton, Regina, Windsor, Edmonton, and Toronto), median indoor levels of NO2, measured in either summer or winter, generally varied between 4 and 10 µg/m3 (Health Canada, 2013; Health Canada, 2012; Health Canada, 2010; Héroux et al., 2010). When only homes with gas stoves were considered, median values ranged from 9 to 22 µg/m3, with the highest levels measured in winter. The full range of concentrations measured in these studies varied from less than 1 µg/m3 to approximately 90 µg/m3.

Health effects

Health effects of exposure to NO2 have been examined in toxicological and controlled human exposure studies, as well as in epidemiological studies of the health effects of indoor NO2. In this assessment, the short-term exposure limit is derived from the results of controlled human exposure studies, whereas the long-term exposure limit is based on epidemiological data from studies conducted in homes or schools. Supporting evidence is provided by the results of epidemiological studies of the health effects of ambient NO2 and by toxicological data obtained from studies conducted on laboratory animals.

Controlled human exposure studies

In general, controlled human exposure studies in healthy adults suggest that the respiratory and cardiovascular systems are not adversely affected by inhalation of up to 1 880 µg/m3 NO2 for one to six hours, with or without exercise (Gong et al., 2005; Frampton et al., 2002; Vagaggini et al., 1996; Jorres et al., 1995; Kim et al., 1991; Rubinstein et al., 1991; Frampton et al., 1989a; Frampton et al., 1989b; Adams, Brookes and Schelegle, 1987; Folinsbee et al., 1978; Morrow et al., 1992; Frampton et al., 1991; Hazucha, Ginsberg and McDonnell, 1983; Bylin et al., 1985). However, evidence of slight hematological, inflammatory, and immunological effects was observed in some healthy adults with exposure to 1 100 µg/m3 NO2 (Frampton et al., 1989a; Frampton et al., 1989b; Frampton et al., 2002).

Multiple studies among asthmatics and adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reported adverse respiratory effects of NO2 at a concentration of 500 µg/m3 (Vagaggini et al., 1996; Morrow et al., 1992; Roger et al., 1990; Bauer et al., 1986; Avol et al., 1989; Strand et al., 1996; Bylin et al., 1988). Asthmatic children and adults exhibited decreased lung function and/or airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) following bronchial challenge (i.e. administration of bronchoconstricting agents) [Bauer et al., 1986; Avol et al., 1989]. Furthermore, asthmatics with allergies displayed decreased lung function (Strand et al., 1997; Jenkins et al., 1999; Tunnicliffe, Burge and Ayres, 1994) or increased pulmonary inflammation when NO2 exposure was followed by exposure to an allergen (Barck et al., 2002; Barck et al., 2005; Wang et al., 1995a; Wang et al., 1995b). Adults with COPD displayed decreased lung function in response to NO2, but other health effects were not observed (Vagaggini et al., 1996; Gong et al., 2005).

Data on the respiratory health effects of NO2 below concentrations of 500 µg/m3 is inconsistent. A small number of studies demonstrated that exposure to concentrations of NO2 below 500 µg/m3 could result in decreased lung function in asthmatic adults following bronchial challenge (Orehek, Massari and Gaynard, 1976; Kleinman et al., 1983; Hazucha, Ginsberg and McDonnell, 1983), while other studies failed to demonstrate this effect (Bylin et al., 1985; Bylin et al., 1988; Roger et al., 1990; Jorres and Magnussen, 1991). The marked response of some individuals to NO2 with bronchial challenge suggests a large variability in the population, even among asthmatics. However, this responsiveness was not correlated with asthma severity or sensitivity to a given bronchoconstricting agent. Overall, the current evidence does not suggest age- or gender-sensitivity to NO2, although few studies have specifically evaluated this question in older adults or asthmatic children.

Indoor epidemiological studies

Numerous epidemiological studies have found positive associations between the frequency of respiratory symptoms (e.g. wheezing, chest tightness) and long-term exposure to NO2 in the home. However, these same studies generally report few or no effects of NO2 on lung function parameters. Positive associations between indoor NO2 and respiratory symptoms were most consistently observed in studies of asthmatic children exposed to indoor NO2 concentrations that were on average approximately two to three times higher than those typically measured in Canadian homes but which also encompassed Canadian exposure levels in the low end of their ranges (Belanger et al. 2013; Hansel et al. 2008; Kattan et al. 2007; Belanger et al. 2006; Nitschke et al. 2006). One study in particular, however, noted a positive association between respiratory symptoms and medication use in asthmatic children at much lower levels of indoor NO2 than observed previously (i.e. above 11 µg/m3) [Belanger et al., 2013].

Two randomized intervention studies support a relationship between decreased exposure to NO2 and its co-pollutants and improvement in respiratory symptoms, particularly in asthmatic children (Pilotto et al., 2004; Marks et al., 2010). In these studies, the intervention involved replacement of an unvented gas heater with a vented gas or electric heater. Reductions of indoor NO2 to approximately 30 µg/m3 were associated with a decrease in respiratory symptoms. Similar effects at this concentration, and below, were also observed in the study by Belanger et al. (2013). Studies investigating the relationship between personal NO2 exposure and respiratory health outcomes also support an association between chronic NO2 exposure and adverse effects.

A large number of studies have investigated respiratory health in relation to the presence or use of a gas stove, without direct measurement of NO2 levels. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have produced mixed results, with some indication of a relationship between increased respiratory symptoms and slight decreases in lung function in children when gas stoves are present in the home (reviewed in WHO, 2010). The potential for exposure misclassification is greater in these types of studies as NO2 is not directly measured; this may explain, in part, the inconsistencies in the database.

Residential indoor air quality guideline for nitrogen dioxide

The determination of a residential indoor air quality guideline (RIAQG) is carried out in two stages. First, a reference concentration (RfC) is derived by applying uncertainty factors to the concentrations at which the most sensitive adverse health endpoint was observed. It is important to note that the shape of the dose response relationship for the toxic effects of NO2 is uncertain and no biological threshold can be identified based on current evidence. The RfC approach is used for the determination of a guideline to reduce potential health impacts such as those observed in key indoor epidemiological studies.

For the short-term exposure RfC, the exposure period is specified — in the present case, one hour. For the long-term exposure RfC, the exposure is considered to occur over months or years, up to a lifetime.

In the second stage, the short- and long-term exposure RfCs are compared with measured exposures in residential indoor air, and evaluated with respect to their technical feasibility. If the RfC is considered attainable where reasonable control measures are followed, the RIAQG is set equal to the RfC. If the RfC is considered unattainable with currently available risk management technology and practices, the RIAQG may be set at a higher concentration. Setting the RIAQG at a higher concentration than the RfC results in a smaller margin of exposure between the RIAQG and the concentration at which effects have been observed in health studies. Nonetheless, an RIAQG derived in this manner does provide a measure of health protection, while remaining an achievable target for improving indoor air quality when evaluating risk management measures.

Short-term residential indoor air quality guideline

For the derivation of the short-term exposure (one hour) RfC, a concentration of 500 µg/m3 NO2 was identified from the observed effects in asthmatics in most short-term controlled exposure studies. The health effects observed at this level of exposure were decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Decreased lung function was also observed in subjects with COPD exposed to a similar concentration of 560 µg/m3 NO2. However, it should be emphasized that there were individuals who were more responsive in some studies, suggestive of a large variability in the population.

In determining the need for an uncertainty factor (UF) for intraspecies variability, consideration was given to the increased AHR of individual asthmatics at doses as low as 190 µg/m3 NO2. Similarly, consideration was given to the uncertainty in the effects that might be observed in adults with COPD and in asthmatic children if they had been tested at concentrations of less than 500 µg/m3. An intraspecies UF of 3 is considered appropriate to address sensitive individuals (i.e. responders, adults with COPD, asthmatic children). A composite UF of 10 (3 for use of an adverse effects level as the point of departure, and 3 for intraspecies variability) was therefore applied to the short-term lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 500 µg/m3 to obtain an RfC of 50 µg/m3.

Evaluating the feasibility of the short-term exposure RfC for the Canadian population is limited by the lack of data on short-term peak concentrations. However, a California study of modelled indoor NO2 concentrations indicates that less than 25% of homes with gas stoves and moderately efficient hood ventilation would meet a limit of 50 µg/m3. By comparison, 75% of homes with gas stoves and moderately effective stovetop ventilation would be able to meet a limit of 170 µg/m3. For risk management purposes, a short-term RIAQG of 170 µg/m3 is therefore set for short-term exposure. This value supersedes the previous 1987 Health Canada short-term indoor air exposure limit of 480 µg/m3. Most homes will be able to meet the guidelines, although some with a gas stove may exceed the short-term guideline for brief periods of time after cooking.

The short-term exposure (one hour) RIAQG of 170 µg/m3 is approximately threefold lower than the concentration at which the most sensitive adverse effects were observed in sensitive subpopulations (asthmatic adults and children, adults with COPD) in multiple studies. In addition, it provides a marginal buffer to the AHR observed in a few sensitized asthmatics at 190 µg/m3 in two studies.

It is recommended that the short-term exposure limit be compared to a one-hour air sample. This sample should be taken under typical conditions where peak NO2 concentrations are expected, such as in the kitchen during cooking with a gas stove.

Long-term residential indoor air quality guideline

For the derivation of the long-term RfC, consideration was given to the strength of the epidemiological evidence for an association between chronic indoor NO2 exposure and adverse respiratory effects, the level of exposure at which most studies begin to show significant increases in effects, and the UFs that should be applied. A concentration of 30 µg/m3 was selected, based on respiratory symptoms observed in indoor epidemiological studies of asthmatic children and supporting evidence from intervention studies. A default UF of 3 was retained to account for the fact that the point of departure is based on observed adverse effects. As the studies on which the point of departure is based are conducted in the sensitive subpopulation of asthmatic children, no further UF for intraspecies variability was employed. A UF of 3 was therefore applied to the long-term point of departure of 30 µg/m3 to obtain a long-term exposure RfC of 10 µg/m3.

Alternatively, the long-term exposure RfC could have been derived from a lower point of departure of 11 µg/m3, the concentration above which respiratory effects are seen in one indoor epidemiological study of asthmatic children. In this scenario, no UFs would be required, resulting in a value of 11 µg/m3 for the RfC. This derivation supports the RfC of 10 µg/m3 identified above.

Data on homes with gas stoves in Canada suggest that the air of approximately 90% of these homes would exceed an average concentration of 10 µg/m3 NO2. The air in certain homes with an electric stove would also exceed this concentration, even in the absence of a main indoor source of NO2 as the result of other sources (e.g. outdoor NO2). For this reason, the long-term exposure RfC of 10 µg/m3 was not retained as the RIAQG for long-term exposure.

For risk management purposes, a value of 20 µg/m3 is set as the RIAQG for long-term exposure. This value supersedes the previous 1987 Health Canada long-term indoor air exposure limit of 100 µg/m3. Data from Canadian indoor air studies indicate that the concentration of NO2 in most homes with electric stoves will rarely exceed this level and that this concentration is also attainable in homes with gas stoves when adequate stovetop ventilation is used. There is some evidence in the indoor epidemiological literature to suggest the possibility of health effects at this concentration; nevertheless, the RIAQG for long-term exposure of 20 µg/m3 is considered to provide a measure of health protection.

When comparing a measured NO2 concentration with the long-term exposure limit, the sampling time should be at least 24 hours. However, given the fluctuation in NO2 levels throughout the day, month, or season, longer sampling periods will provide a more representative estimate for evaluating NO2 exposure occurring over months or years.

Residential maximum exposure limit for nitrogen dioxide

Exposure period Concentration Critical effects
µg/m3 ppb
Short-term
(1 hour)
170 90 Decreased lung function and increased airway responsiveness in asthmatics
Long-term
(24 hours)
20 11 Higher frequency of days with respiratory symptoms and/or medication use in asthmatic children

Strategies for reducing exposure to NO2 indoors include controlling indoor emissions from combustion appliances and reducing infiltration of NO2 from adjacent sources. Control measures include the following:

Use of these strategies will reduce exposure to NO2 and other contaminants in combustion gases, including carbon monoxide, fine and ultrafine particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds.

References

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Avol, E. L., Linn, W. S., Peng, R. C., Whynot, J. D., Shamoo, D. A., Little, D. E., Smith, M. N. and Hackney, J. D. (1989) Experimental exposures of young asthmatic volunteers to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide and to ambient air pollution, Toxicology and industrial health, 5(6): 1025–1034.

Barck, C., Lundahl, J., Halldén, G. and Bylin, G. (2005) Brief exposures to NO2 augment the allergic inflammation in asthmatics, Environmental Research, 97(1): 58–66.

Barck, C., Sandstrom, T., Lundahl, J., Halldén, G., Svartengren, M., Strand, V., Rak, S. and Bylin, G. (2002) Ambient level of NO2 augments the inflammatory response to inhaled allergen in asthmatics, Respiratory Medicine, 96(11): 907–917.

Bauer, M. A., Utell, M. J., Morrow, P. E., Speers, D. M. and Gibb, F. R. (1986) Inhalation of 0.30 ppm nitrogen dioxide potentiates exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthmatics, American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 134: 1203–1208.

Belanger, K., Gent, J. F., Triche, E. W., Bracken, M. B. and Leaderer, B. P. (2006) Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 173(3): 297–303.

Belanger, K., Holford, T. R., Gent, J. F., Hill, M. E., Kezik, J. M. and Leaderer, B. P. (2013) Household levels of nitrogen dioxide and pediatric asthma severity, Epidemiology, 24(2): 320–330.

Bylin, G., Hedenstierna, G., Lindvall, T. and Sundin, B. (1988) Ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations increase bronchial responsiveness in subjects with mild asthma, European Respiratory Journal, 1(7): 606–612.

Bylin, G., Lindvall, T., Rehn, T. and Sundin, B. (1985) Effects of short-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations on human bronchial reactivity and lung function, Eur J Respir Dis, 66(3): 205–217.

Folinsbee, L. J., Horvath, S. M., Bedi, J. F. and Delehunt, J. C. (1978) Effect of 0.62 ppm NO2 on cardiopulmonary function in young male nonsmokers, Environmental Research, 15(2): 199–205.

Frampton, M. W., Boscia, J., Roberts Jr., N. J., Azadniv, M., Torres, A., Cox, C., Morrow, P. E., Nichols, J., Chalupa, D., Frasier, L. M., Gibb, F. R., Speers, D. M., Tsai, Y. and Utell, M. J. (2002) Nitrogen dioxide exposure: Effects on airway and blood cells, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 282(1 26-1): L155–L165.

Frampton, M. W., Finkelstein, J. N., Roberts Jr., N. J., Smeglin, A. M., Morrow, P. E. and Utell, M. J. (1989a) Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on bronchoalveolar lavage proteins in humans, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 1(6): 499–505.

Frampton, M. W., Morrow, P. E., Cox, C., Gibb, F. R., Speers, D. M. and Utell, M. J. (1991) Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in normal humans, American Review of Respiratory Disease, 143(3 I): 522–527.

Frampton, M. W., Smeglin, A. M., Roberts Jr., N. J., Finkelstein, J. N., Morros, P. E. and Utell, M. J. (1989b) Nitrogen dioxide exposure in vivo and human alveolar macrophage inactivation of influenza virus in vitro, Environmental Research, 48(2): 179–192.

Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Clark, K. W., Anderson, K. R., Geller, M. D. and Sioutas, C. (2005) Respiratory responses to exposures with fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide in the elderly with and without COPD, Inhalation toxicology, 17(3): 123–132.

Hansel, N. N., Breysse, P. N., McCormack, M. C., Matsui, E. C., Curtin-Brosnan, J., Williams, D. L., Moore, J. L., Cuhran, J. L. and Diette, G. B. (2008) A longitudinal study of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratory symptoms in inner-city children with asthma, Environmental health perspectives, 116(10): 1428–1432.

Hazucha, M. J., Ginsberg, J. F. and McDonnell, W. F. (1983) Effects of 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide on airways of normal and asthmatic subjects, Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology, 54(3): 730–739, as cited in Graham et al. (1997).

Health Canada (2013) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2013-17 — Edmonton NO2 (unpublished).

Health Canada (2012) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2012-15 — Halifax NO2 Data (unpublished).

Health Canada (2010) Health Canada Exposure Assessment Studies: NO2 Sampling Data Summary. Document: HC-IACAS-2010-07 — NO2 Data (unpublished).

Héroux, M. E., Clark, N., van Ryswyk, K., Mallick, R., Gilbert, N. L., Harrison, I., Rispler, K., Wang, D., Anastassopoulos, A., Guay, M., Macneill, M. and Wheeler, A. J. (2010) Predictors of indoor air concentrations in smoking and non-smoking residences, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(8): 3080–3099.

Jenkins, H. S., Devalia, J. L., Mister, R. L., Bevan, A. M., Rusznak, C. and Davies, R. J. (1999) The effect of exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide on the airway response of atopic asthmatics to inhaled allergens, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 160(1): 33–39.

Jorres, R. and Magnussen, H. (1991) Effect of 0.25 ppm nitrogen dioxide on the airway response to methacholine in asymptomatic asthmatic patients, Lung, 169(2): 77–85.

Kattan, M., Gergen, P. J., Eggleston, P., Visness, C. M. and Mitchell, H. E. (2007) Health effects of indoor nitrogen dioxide and passive smoking on urban asthmatic children, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120(3): 618–624.

Kim, S. U., Koenig, J. Q., Pierson, W. E. and Hanley, Q. S. (1991) Acute pulmonary effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure during exercise in competitive athletes, Chest, 99(4): 815–819.

Kleinman, M. T., Bailey, R. M., Linn, W. S., Anderson, K. R., Whynot, J. D., Shamoo, D. A. and Hackney, J. D. (1983) Effects of 0.2 ppm nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function and response to bronchoprovocation in asthmatics, J Toxicol Environ Health, 12(4-6): 815–826.

Marks, G. B., Ezz, W., Aust, N., Toelle, B. G., Xuan, W., Belousova, E., Cosgrove, C., Jalaludin, B. and Smith, W. T. (2010) Respiratory health effects of exposure to low-NOx unflued gas heaters in the classroom: a double-blind, cluster-randomized, crossover study, Environ Health Perspect, 118(10): 1476–1482.

Morrow, P. E., Utell, M. J., Bauer, M. A., Smeglin, A. M., Frampton, M. W., Cox, C., Speers, D. M. and Gibb, F. R. (1992) Pulmonary performance of elderly normal subjects and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide, Am Rev Respir Dis, 145(2): 291–300.

Nitschke, M., Pilotto, L. S., Attewell, R. G., Smith, B. J., Pisaniello, D., Martin, J., Ruffin, R. E. and Hiller, J. E. (2006) A cohort study of indoor nitrogen dioxide and house dust mite exposure in asthmatic children, J Occup Environ Med, 48(5): 462–469.

Orehek, J., Massari, J. P. and Gayrard, P. (1976) Effect of short term, low level nitrogen dioxide exposure on bronchial sensitivity of asthmatic patients, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 57(2): 301–307.

Pilotto, L. S., Nitschke, M., Smith, B. J., Pisaniello, D., Ruffin, R. E., McElroy, H. J., Martin, J. and Hiller, J. E. (2004) Randomized controlled trial of unflued gas heater replacement on respiratory health of asthmatic schoolchildren, Int J Epidemiol, 33(1): 208–214.

Roger, L. J., Horstman, D. H., McDonnell, W., Kehrl, H., Ives, P. J., Seal, E., Chapman, R. and Massaro, E. (1990) Pulmonary function, airway responsiveness and respiratory symptoms in asthmatics following exercise in NO2, Toxicology and industrial health, 6(1): 155–171.

Rubinstein, I., Reiss, T. F., Bigby, B. G., Stites, D. P. and Boushey, H. A. J. (1991) Effects of 0.60 PPM nitrogen dioxide on circulating and bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte phenotypes in healthy subjects, Environ Res, 55(1): 18–30.

Strand, V., Rak, S., Svartengren, M. and Bylin, G. (1997) Nitrogen dioxide exposure enhances asthmatic reaction to inhaled allergen in subjects with asthma, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 155(3): 881–887.

Strand, V., Salomonsson, P., Lundahl, J. and Bylin, G. (1996) Immediate and delayed effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure at an ambient level on bronchial responsiveness to histamine in subjects with asthma, Eur Respir J, 9(4): 733–740.

Tunnicliffe, W. S., Burge, P. S. and Ayres, J. G. (1994) Effect of domestic concentrations of nitrogen dioxide on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic patients, Lancet, 344: 1733–1736.

Vagaggini, B., Paggiaro, P. L., Giannini, D., Franco, A. D., Cianchetti, S., Carnevali, S., Taccola, M., Bacci, E., Bancalari, L., Dente, F. L. and Giuntini, C. (1996) Effect of short-term NO2 exposure on induced sputum in normal, asthmatic and COPD subjects, European Respiratory Journal, 9(9): 1852–1857.

Wang, J. H., Devalia, J. L., Duddle, J. M., Hamilton, S. A. and Davies, R. J. (1995a) Effect of six-hour exposure to nitrogen dioxide on early-phase nasal response to allergen challenge in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis, J. Allergy Clin Immunol, 96(5 I): 669–676.

Wang, J. H., Duddle, J., Devalia, J. L. and Davies, R. J. (1995b) Nitrogen dioxide increases eosinophil activation in the early-phase response to nasal allergen provocation, Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 107(1-3): 103–105.

WHO (2010) Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants, World Health Organization.

[32-1-o]

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL

Appointments

Name and position

Order in Council

Bracken, The Hon. J. Keith

2015-1122

Government of British Columbia

 

Administrator

 

July 20 to July 22, 2015

 

Brown, The Hon. Russell S.

2015-1127

Supreme Court of Canada

 

Puisne Judge

 

Campbell, The Hon. Gordon L.

2015-1058

Government of Prince Edward Island

 

Administrator

 

July 6 to July 9, 2015

 

Côté, The Hon. Jean E.

2015-1056

Government of Alberta

 

Administrator

 

July 3 to July 12, 2015

 

Doyon, J. Michel, Q.C.

2015-1124

Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Quebec

 

Ellis, Karen

2015-1061

Associate Deputy Minister of Veterans Affairs

 

Fichaud, The Hon. Joel E.

2015-1057

Government of Nova Scotia

 

Administrator

 

July 6 to July 9 and August 17 to August 19, 2015

 

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador

 

Administrators

 

Welsh, The Hon. B. Gale

 

July 10 to July 19, 2015

2015-1069

July 24 and July 25, 2015

2015-1123

Whalen, The Hon. Raymond P.

 

July 8 and July 9, 2015

2015-1069

July 23, 2015

2015-1123

Horsman, Nancy

2015-1062

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario

 

President

 

Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission

 

Commissioner and Chairperson

 

Sinclair, The Hon. Murray

2015-1045

Half-time Commissioners

 

Littlechild, Wilton

2015-1046

Wilson, Marie

2015-1047

Philp, The Hon. Alan R.

2015-1063

Government of Manitoba

 

Administrator

 

July 6, 2015

 

Ryan-Froslie, The Hon. Jacelyn A.

2015-1094

Government of Saskatchewan

 

Administrator

 

September 13 to September 27, 2015

 

Smart, Anne Marie

2015-1060

Chief Human Resources Officer

 

Watson, Daniel

2015-1059

Parks Canada Agency

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

July 30, 2015

DIANE BÉLANGER
Official Documents Registrar

[32-1-o]

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT

AERONAUTICS ACT

Notice amending the comment period for the Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Aerodrome Work Consultations)

Notice is hereby given that the comment period is extended from 30 days to 60 days with regard to the Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Aerodrome Work Consultations), which were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on July 11, 2015. The final date for comments will be September 9, 2015. This extension will correct an administrative error and meet Transport Canada’s commitment made to its stakeholders as publicized in a news release.

[32-1-o]

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT

AERONAUTICS ACT

Notice of intent to amend the Canadian Aviation Regulations

Notice is hereby given that Transport Canada intends to introduce proposed amendments to the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) to address flight crew fatigue management.

The current Canadian regulatory regime on flight crew fatigue management dates back before 1996 when the CARs were put into force. This regime is based on a traditional model of regulating flight crew fatigue that dates back to principles developed out of the industrial revolution, when it started to be understood that fatigue in workers came about from long, continuous periods of work. Out of this understanding, rules were developed for limiting the hours of work for road, rail and aviation workers.

Fatigue science gathered in the second half of the 20th century shows that fatigue is more complicated than mere hours of work, and that circadian rhythms, sleep hygiene, and time of day also affect fatigue. The understanding of human error and its role in accident causation has increased. Further research on human errors and accident causation shows that organization-wide processes can either help or hinder the prevention of accidents.

The purpose of the proposed regulatory amendment would be to increase safety by reducing the risk of airline accidents and incidents due to flight crew fatigue and to increase compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards in the areas of flight time, flight duty time and time free from duty as well as minimum rest periods by amending the current regulations so that they are based on scientific principles and knowledge. In addition, the proposed regulatory amendment would introduce voluntary Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) regulations that would allow operators to manage fatigue risk by taking into account their operating environment.

Proposed amendments

The proposed regulatory amendment would be introduced in two phases. Phase 1 would cover only air operators operating pursuant to CARs Subpart 705 Airlines Operations, while Phase 2, to be introduced as soon as possible as part of a future regulatory proposal, would apply to all air operators (CARs Subparts 604 Private Operators, 702 Aerial Work, 703 Air Taxi Operations, 704 Commuter Operations and 705 Airline Operations) and would introduce a more comprehensive set of new requirements on flight crew fatigue management.

The following are details related to the proposed regulatory amendment to be included in Phase 1 applicable to air operators operating pursuant to CARs Subpart 705:

Consultation

Transport Canada (TC) created a working group in 2010 in response to the internationally recognized issue of flight crew fatigue and the introduction of requirements under ICAO standards in 2009. The Flight Crew Fatigue Management Working Group included pilots and industry associations. The working group met for approximately 43 days over 18 months and published a final report in August 2012 titled Report of the Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council Flight Crew Fatigue Management Working Group. Following the publication of the Working Group Report, a TC Technical Committee meeting was held in 2012 in which TC employees and industry participated. As a result of the recommendations of the Working Group Report and the Technical Committee, a Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) was created and was consulted upon through the Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council (CARAC) process. The consulted NPA included various proposed regulatory amendments and implementation dates for all air operators. However, based on the stakeholder feedback received on the NPA, TC decided to propose a two-phase approach to the regulatory proposal to bring Canadian regulations into alignment with scientific fatigue principles and knowledge and with international standards.

Comments

Any person, member of the public, and other interested party, may, within 30 days of the publication of this notice, provide their comments on this Notice of Intent, in writing, to the person named below at the address provided.

Questions and comments regarding this Notice of Intent may be directed to the Chief, Regulatory Affairs, Civil Aviation, Transport Canada, Safety and Security, AARBH, Place de Ville, Tower C, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N5, CARRAC@tc.gc.ca.

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT

CANADA MARINE ACT

Saguenay Port Authority — Supplementary letters patent

BY THE MINISTER OF TRANSPORT

WHEREAS letters patent were issued by the Minister of Transport (“Minister”) for the Saguenay Port Authority (“Authority”), under the authority of the Canada Marine Act (“Act”), effective May 1, 1999;

WHEREAS Schedule C of the letters patent sets out the immovables, other than federal immovables, held or occupied by the Authority;

WHEREAS pursuant to subsection 46(2.1) of the Act, the Authority wishes to acquire the immovables known and designated as being lots 4 012 405, 4 012 963, 4 012 964, 4 012 965, 4 012 966 and part of lot 4 013 919 (5 367 750 projected) of the cadastre of Quebec;

WHEREAS the board of directors of the Authority has requested that the Minister issue supplementary letters patent to set out the said immovables in Schedule C of the letters patent;

AND WHEREAS the Minister is satisfied that the amendment to the letters patent is consistent with the Act;

NOW THEREFORE, pursuant to subsection 9(1) of the Act, the letters patent are amended as follows:

  Lot Description
  4 012 405 An immovable known and designated as being lot 4 012 405 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared March 20, 2015, under number 204 of the minutes of Joffrey Dufour, land surveyor, containing an area of 4 343 611.7 m2.
  4 012 963 An immovable known and designated as being lot 4 012 963 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared April 29, 2014, under number 9 of the minutes of Joffrey Dufour, land surveyor, containing an area of 3 017.6 m2.
  4 012 964 An immovable known and designated as being lot 4 012 964 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared April 29, 2014, under number 9 of the minutes of Joffrey Dufour, land surveyor, containing an area of 1 178.0 m2.
  4 012 965 An immovable known and designated as being lot 4 012 965 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared April 29, 2014, under number 9 of the minutes of Joffrey Dufour, land surveyor, containing an area of 1 605.5 m2.
  4 012 966 An immovable known and designated as being lot 4 012 966 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared April 29, 2014, under number 9 of the minutes of Joffrey Dufour, land surveyor, containing an area of 2 427.8 m2.
  Part of 4 013 919 (5 367 750 projected) An immovable known and designated as being part of lot 4 013 919 (5 367 750 projected) of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Chicoutimi, city of Saguenay, as described in the technical description and shown on the accompanying plan prepared August 9, 2013, under number 3646 of the minutes of Louis-Alain Tremblay, land surveyor, containing an area of 1 707.9 m2.

ISSUED this 21st day of July, 2015.

________________________________

The Honourable Lisa Raitt, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Transport

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT

CANADA MARINE ACT

Trois-Rivières Port Authority — Supplementary letters patent

BY THE MINISTER OF TRANSPORT

WHEREAS letters patent were issued by the Minister of Transport (“Minister”) for the Trois-Rivières Port Authority (“Authority”), under the authority of the Canada Marine Act (“Act”), effective May 1, 1999;

WHEREAS Schedule C of the letters patent sets out the immovables, other than federal immovables, held or occupied by the Authority;

WHEREAS pursuant to subsection 46(2.1) of the Act, the Authority wishes to acquire the immovables known and designated as being lots 1 017 663 and 1 019 103 of the cadastre of Quebec;

WHEREAS the board of directors of the Authority has requested that the Minister issue supplementary letters patent to set out the said immovables in Schedule C of the letters patent;

AND WHEREAS the Minister is satisfied that the amendment to the letters patent is consistent with the Act;

NOW THEREFORE, pursuant to subsection 9(1) of the Act, the letters patent are amended as follows:

  Lot Description
  1 017 663 An immovable known and designated as being lot 1 017 663 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Trois-Rivières, city of Trois-Rivières, as described in the certificate of location and shown on the accompanying plan prepared March 24, 2015, under number 3467 of the minutes of Michel Plante, land surveyor, containing an area of 26 640.0 m2.
  1 019 103 An immovable known and designated as being lot 1 019 103 of the cadastre of Quebec, registration division of Trois-Rivières, city of Trois-Rivières, as described in the certificate of location and shown on the accompanying plan prepared March 12, 2015, under number 4192 of the minutes of Claude Guévin, land surveyor, containing an area of 263.5 m2.

ISSUED this 17th day of July, 2015.

_______________________________

The Honourable Lisa Raitt, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Transport

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT

CANADA MARINE ACT

Vancouver Fraser Port Authority — Supplementary letters patent

BY THE MINISTER OF TRANSPORT

WHEREAS the Governor in Council, pursuant to Part 5.1 of the Port Authorities Management Regulations, issued a Certificate of Amalgamation containing letters patent to amalgamate the Vancouver Port Authority, the Fraser River Port Authority and the North Fraser Port Authority to continue as the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority (“Authority”), effective January 1, 2008;

WHEREAS Schedule C of the letters patent sets out the real property, other than federal real property, held or occupied by the Authority;

WHEREAS the Authority wishes to

WHEREAS, in accordance with subsection 44(6) of the Act, a port authority may manage, occupy or hold only the real property and immovables set out in its letters patent;

WHEREAS the board of directors of the Authority has requested that the Minister issue supplementary letters patent to amend Schedule C of the letters patent;

AND WHEREAS the Minister of Transport is satisfied that the amendment to the letters patent is consistent with the Act;

NOW THEREFORE, pursuant to subsection 9(1) of the Act, the letters patent are amended as follows:

  PID number Description
  (unregistered) LOT 2 BLOCK 45 DISTRICT LOTS 181 AND 196 GROUP 1
NEW WESTMINSTER DISTRICT
PLAN EPP41183

ISSUED this 17th day of July, 2015.

________________________________

The Honourable Lisa Raitt, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Transport

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