Canada Gazette, Part I, Volume 155, Number 13: GOVERNMENT NOTICES

March 27, 2021



Final guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality for 1,4-dioxane

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of the final guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality for 1,4-dioxane. The technical document for these guidelines is available on the Water Quality website. This document underwent a public consultation period of 60 days in 2018 and was updated to take into consideration the comments received.

March 27, 2021

David Morin
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate
On behalf of the Minister of Health


Guideline value

A maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.050 mg/L (50 µg/L) is established for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water.

Executive summary

1,4-Dioxane is a chemical that is not found naturally in the environment. It is produced in Canada and imported from other countries, primarily to be used as an industrial and commercial solvent. It can also be present as a contaminant in cosmetics, food additives, and food packaging materials, or on food crops treated with pesticides containing 1,4-dioxane. Its release to the environment is mainly from chemical waste disposal practices, leaks from landfills, or wastewater discharges. Because of its chemical properties, 1,4-dioxane travels rapidly, partitioning from soil to groundwater sources.

The guideline technical document reviews and assesses all identified health risks associated with 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. It incorporates available studies and approaches and takes into consideration the availability of appropriate treatment technology. Based on this review, the guideline for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water is a maximum concentration of 0.050 mg/L (50 μg/L).

Health effects

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 1,4-dioxane as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (group 2B) based on sufficient evidence in laboratory animals and inadequate evidence in humans.

The MAC of 0.050 mg/L is based on studies of liver effects in rats that occur before the development of cancer, and is protective of both cancer and non-cancer health effects of 1,4-dioxane. Studies in humans are limited to the non-cancer health risks associated with exposure via inhalation, which affects the liver and kidneys, and support the observations in laboratory animal studies.

The most severe health effect associated with exposure to 1,4-dioxane in animals is cancer. Science indicates that 1,4-dioxane only causes cancer above a certain level of exposure. As the non-cancer health effects on the liver are the most sensitive health effects and are precursors of the cancer effects, they are deemed appropriate as the basis for a MAC that is protective of both cancer and non-cancer health effects.


The primary sources of exposure to 1,4-dioxane are inhalation of outdoor air or vapours during cleaning activities, ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water, and dermal contact with consumer products. 1,4-Dioxane is generally not detected in water supplies in Canada. In some cases, it has been found in groundwater located near landfills and industrial sites as it can migrate rapidly in the subsurface.

Although skin contact and inhalation are potential routes of exposure to 1,4-dioxane, the intake of 1,4-dioxane from drinking water through these routes (e.g. while bathing or showering) is not significant and is not considered in this assessment.

Analysis and treatment considerations

Because of its chemical properties, analysis of 1,4-dioxane can be challenging. Therefore, appropriate sample preparation methods are needed for 1,4-dioxane to be measured in drinking water at levels well below the MAC.

Since the physical and chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane make it difficult to remove using conventional drinking water treatment at the municipal level, alternative treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes and, to a lesser extent, synthetic adsorbents, need to be considered. These alternative technologies are capable of effectively removing 1,4-dioxane, achieving treated water concentrations below the MAC. Recent research also indicates that reverse osmosis membranes may be capable of removing a large proportion of 1,4-dioxane from water.

At the residential level, there are no certified residential treatment units for the reduction of 1,4-dioxane from drinking water. However, available data suggest that 1,4-dioxane may be effectively removed by reverse osmosis at the point of use.

Application of the guidelines

Note: Specific guidance related to the implementation of drinking water guidelines should be obtained from the appropriate drinking water authority in the affected jurisdiction.

The main use of 1,4-dioxane has historically been in industrial applications as a stabilizer of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). It commonly co-occurs in groundwater contaminated with the chlorinated solvent TCA and its degradation product 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) as well trichloroethylene (TCE) at sites with long operating histories where both TCA and TCE were used. 1,4-Dioxane also occurs as a by-product in the production of ethoxylated surfactants and polyethylene terephthalate plastics, and it is used directly in pharmaceutical and other industries. Landfills and solvent recycling facilities are among the most common sources of 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater. Effluents from industrial facilities and wastewater treatment plants have also been found to be sources of 1,4-dioxane in surface water.

Due to the chemically persistent nature of 1,4-dioxane, the impact of release events (such as historical waste disposal practices) are typically long-lasting on the receiving environment. Since 1,4-dioxane is resistant to natural degradation and other attenuation processes once it enters the subsurface, it can reach drinking water wells through the migration of a contaminated groundwater plume.


Utilities should characterize their source water to determine the concentration of 1,4-dioxane. Semi-annual monitoring should be conducted for sources that are known to be impacted by industrial wastes, landfill leachate, wastewater effluent and/or sources that contain chlorinated solvents. Utilities with baseline data indicating that 1,4-dioxane is not present in source water may conduct less frequent monitoring.

Drinking water systems can treat source water using specific treatment processes (i.e. advanced oxidation processes) to remove 1,4-dioxane from drinking water. 1,4-Dioxane is not effectively treated by technologies usually employed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Therefore, these treatment systems should be carefully designed and maintained to ensure that they are effective for treating 1,4-dioxane. When treatment is in place for 1,4-dioxane, compliance monitoring of the treated water should be conducted semi-annually and in conjunction with monitoring of the source water to confirm the efficacy of treatment. Drinking water samples should be collected after treatment and prior to distribution (typically at the entry point to the distribution system). The operational monitoring frequency will depend on the treatment technology the utility employs.



Proposed Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality for Malathion

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of the proposed Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality for Malathion. The proposed guideline technical document is available from March 27, 2021, to May 26, 2021, on the Health Canada consultation webpage. Any person may, within 60 days after publication of this notice, file with the Minister of Health written comments on the proposed document. Comments must be sent by email at

March 27, 2021

David Morin
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate
On behalf of the Minister of Health


Proposed guideline value

A maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.29 mg/L (290 μg/L) is proposed for malathion in drinking water.

Executive summary

This guideline technical document was prepared in collaboration with the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and is based on assessments of malathion completed by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) and supporting documents.


Malathion is a registered insecticide and acaricide used on a wide variety of sites including agricultural and non-agricultural sites. In 2018 (the most recent year for which data are available), over 25 000 kg of malathion was sold in Canada (Health Canada, 2020a). Malathion may be released into surface water or soils as runoff from the application site.

Malathion is not usually found in drinking water sources in Canada. Low levels of malathion have been found in several Canadian provinces. The maximum reported concentrations are well below the proposed MAC. Malathion is rarely detected in foods.

Health effects

Animal studies indicate that the kidney is the most sensitive target organ for malathion toxicity. There are no human studies on the effects of malathion on the kidney. The proposed MAC of 0.29 mg/L (290 µg/L) is based on an increase in severity of chronic kidney effects seen in a two-year rat study.

Analytical and treatment considerations

The establishment of drinking water guidelines takes into consideration the ability to both measure the contaminant and remove it from drinking water supplies. Several analytical methods are available for measuring malathion in water at concentrations well below the proposed MAC.

At the municipal level, treatment technologies are available to effectively decrease malathion concentrations in drinking water supplies. Activated carbon adsorption, membrane filtration, oxidation, and advanced oxidation processes can all be used in the treatment of malathion in drinking water. Advanced oxidation processes achieve the highest removal, with lower removals achieved through oxidation. When using degradation processes like oxidation or advanced oxidation processes, water utilities should be aware of the potential for the formation of degradation by-products (e.g. malaoxon). Pilot- and/or bench-scale testing is recommended prior to full-scale implementation.

In cases where malathion removal is desired at a small-system or household level, for example, when the drinking water supply is from a private well, a residential drinking water treatment unit may be an option. Although there are no treatment units currently certified for the removal of malathion from drinking water, activated carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis technologies are expected to be effective. When using a residential drinking water treatment unit, it is important to take samples of water entering and leaving the treatment unit and send them to an accredited laboratory for analysis to ensure that adequate malathion removal is occurring.

Application of the guidelines

Note: Specific guidance related to the implementation of drinking water guidelines should be obtained from the appropriate drinking water authority.

The proposed guideline value for malathion is protective against health effects from exposure to malathion in drinking water over a lifetime. Any exceedance of the proposed MAC should be investigated and followed by the appropriate corrective actions if required. For exceedances in source water where there is no treatment in place, additional monitoring to confirm the exceedance should be conducted. If it is confirmed that source water malathion concentrations are above the proposed MAC, then an investigation to determine the most appropriate way to reduce exposure to malathion should be conducted. This may include the use of an alternate water supply or the installation of treatment. Where treatment is already in place and an exceedance occurs, an investigation should be conducted to verify the treatment and determine if adjustments are needed to lower the treated water concentration below the proposed MAC.



Notice No. SLPB-001-21 — Consultation on a Streamlined Framework for Auctioning Residual Spectrum Licences

The intent of this notice is to announce Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada's (ISED) initiation of a public consultation on a streamlined framework for auctioning residual spectrum licences through the release of the document entitled Consultation on a Streamlined Framework for Auctioning Residual Spectrum Licences.

Submitting comments

To ensure consideration, parties should submit their comments no later than May 17, 2021. Respondents are asked to provide their comments in electronic format (Microsoft Word or Adobe PDF) by email at Soon after the close of the comment period, all comments will be posted on ISED's Spectrum Management and Telecommunications website. ISED will review and consider all comments in order to arrive at its decisions regarding the above-mentioned consultation.

All submissions should cite the Canada Gazette, Part I, the publication date, the title and the reference number of this notice (SLPB-001-21).

Obtaining copies

Copies of this notice and of documents referred to herein are available electronically on ISED's Spectrum Management and Telecommunications website.

Official versions of notices can be viewed on the Canada Gazette website.

March 27, 2021

Matthew Kellison
Senior Director
Spectrum Licensing Policy Branch


Appointment opportunities

We know that our country is stronger — and our government more effective — when decision-makers reflect Canada's diversity. The Government of Canada has implemented an appointment process that is transparent and merit-based, strives for gender parity, and ensures that Indigenous peoples and minority groups are properly represented in positions of leadership. We continue to search for Canadians who reflect the values that we all embrace: inclusion, honesty, fiscal prudence, and generosity of spirit. Together, we will build a government as diverse as Canada.

We are equally committed to providing a healthy workplace that supports one's dignity, self-esteem and the ability to work to one's full potential. With this in mind, all appointees will be expected to take steps to promote and maintain a healthy, respectful and harassment-free work environment.

The Government of Canada is currently seeking applications from diverse and talented Canadians from across the country who are interested in the following positions.

Current opportunities

The following opportunities for appointments to Governor in Council positions are currently open for applications. Every opportunity is open for a minimum of two weeks from the date of posting on the Governor in Council appointments website.

Governor in Council appointment opportunities
Position Organization Closing date
Member Atlantic Pilotage Authority Canada  
Commissioner British Columbia Treaty Commission  
Member Buffalo and Fort Erie Public Bridge Authority  
Director Business Development Bank of Canada  
President and Chief Executive Officer Business Development Bank of Canada  
President and Chief Executive Officer Canada Development Investment Corporation  
Commissioner for Employers Canada Employment Insurance Commission  
Director Canada Infrastructure Bank  
President and Chief Executive Officer Canada Lands Company Limited  
Director Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation  
Member of the Board of Directors Canada Post  
Member Canadian Cultural Property Export Review Board  
Director Canadian Energy Regulator  
Federal Housing Advocate Canadian Human Rights Commission  
Chairperson Canadian Human Rights Tribunal  
Member Canadian Human Rights Tribunal  
Member Canadian Institutes of Health Research  
Chairperson Canadian Museum of History  
Director Canadian Museum of History  
Chairperson Canadian Transportation Agency  
Temporary Member Canadian Transportation Agency  
Chairperson Destination Canada  
Director Destination Canada  
Director Farm Credit Canada  
Chairperson Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board  
Vice-Chairperson Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board  
Director Freshwater Fish Marketing Corporation  
Member Great Lakes Pilotage Authority Canada  
Hamilton-Oshawa Port Authority  
Member, Yukon Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada  
Assistant Deputy Chairperson Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada  
Governor International Development Research Centre  
Member (appointment to roster) International Trade and International Investment Dispute Settlement Bodies  
Chairperson Laurentian Pilotage Authority Canada  
Director Marine Atlantic Inc.  
Chairperson Military Police Complaints Commission of Canada  
Member Military Police Complaints Commission of Canada  
Member National Arts Centre Corporation  
Member National Seniors Council  
Commissioner and Director Office of the Commissioner of Indigenous Languages  
Superintendent Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada  
Member Payments in Lieu of Taxes Dispute Advisory Panel  
Commissioner Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission  
Chairperson Standards Council of Canada  
Registrar Supreme Court of Canada  
Member Telefilm Canada  
Toronto Port Authority  
Chairperson and Member Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada  
Vice-Chairperson Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada  
Director (Federal) Trois-Rivières Port Authority  



Levy on shipments of crude oil by rail

Pursuant to subsection 155.4(4) footnote 1 of the Canada Transportation Act (the Act), the amount of the levy in respect of payments into the Fund for Railway Accidents Involving Designated Goods required by subsection 155.7(1) footnote 1 of the Act is $1.80 per tonne during the year commencing April 1, 2021.

March 10, 2021

Omar Alghabra, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Transport


Statement of financial position as at February 28, 2021

(Millions of dollars) Unaudited
ASSETS Amount Total
Cash and foreign deposits   6.0
Loans and receivables
Securities purchased under resale agreements 153,292.6  
Advances 0.0  
Other receivables 7.7  
Government of Canada treasury bills 45,437.4  
Government of Canada bonds — carried at amortized cost 110,349.3  
Government of Canada bonds — carried at fair value through profit and loss 221,910.4  
Canada Mortgage Bonds 9,675.5  
Other bonds 17,201.3  
Securities lent or sold under repurchase agreements 8,189.2  
Other investments 2,461.7  
Shares in the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) 492.2  
Derivatives — Indemnity agreements with the Government of Canada   6,714.7
Capital assets
Property and equipment 561.4  
Intangible assets 86.1  
Right-of-use leased assets 48.6  
Other assets   48.6
Total assets   576,478.7
Bank notes in circulation   104,737.4
Government of Canada 66,200.7  
Members of Payments Canada 386,974.5  
Other deposits 8,925.2  
Securities sold under repurchase agreements   7,507.1
Derivatives — Indemnity agreements with the Government of Canada   0.0
Other liabilities   1,549.6
Share capital 5.0  
Statutory and special reserves 125.0  
Investment revaluation reserve 454.2  
Total Liabilities and Equity 576,478.7

I declare that the foregoing statement is correct according to the books of the Bank.

Ottawa, March 17, 2021

Coralia Bulhoes
Chief Financial Officer and Chief Accountant

I declare that the foregoing statement is to the best of my knowledge and belief correct, and shows truly and clearly the financial position of the Bank, as required by section 29 of the Bank of Canada Act.

Ottawa, March 17, 2021

Tiff Macklem